In this context traditional training systems are gradually reaching their limits, which is why we are intensively looking for new and innovative ideas to sustainably improve the modern apple production. A main focus in our research lies on the development of alternative tree training systems. Recently our trees, beside the traditional spindle, are also available as Bibaum® or as Guyot-tree.
The Spindel is globally the most common training system in modern apple production. The tree is composed of one leader with lateral outgoing fruit branches. The branches are stronger in the lower part of the spindle and get shorter as higher we go, in order to give the tree its typical conical shape.
• Early and high yields possible
• Long service life
• Proven over long term
• Decades of experience
• Tailored to individual varieties.
Based on the orchards fertility, the variety and the growth of the tree, the recommended distance between the rows is varying from 2,9 m to 3,5 m, while the within-row spacing should range from 0,7 m to 1 m.
The Bibaum® is characterised by two balanced and symmetric leaders on one trunk. The division of the growth among two leaders offers numerous advantages in the production./p>
• Less strong lower branches – creating narrower fruiting walls;
• Uniform colouration of the fruits;
• Well-spaced fruiting wall which dries quickly;
• Excellent vigour management;
• Perfect for mechanical pruning and thinning;
• Reduction of cultivation activities.
Based on the orchards fertility, the variety and the growth of the tree, the recommended distance between the rows is varying from 2,2 m to 2,9 m, while the within-row spacing should range from 1 m to 1,5 m.
*Bibaum® Patent Mazzoni
The Guyot system represents a tree with one leader, bent horizontal, similar to the viticulture training systems. At its delivery, the leader is already bent to a certain angel and can be easily bent and tied into a horizontal position. Furthermore, the leader has branches only on one side getting stronger toward the end of the leader, in order to counteract the natural tendency of the tree to produce stronger branches at the beginning of the bent leader.
• Missing lower branches – perfect to create narrower fruiting walls
• Very good and uniform colouration of the fruit
• Well-spaced fruiting wall which dries quickly
• Pedestrian orchard (without platforms)
• Suitable for mechanization of pruning, thinning and harvest
• Reduced spray drift – appropriate for sensible zones
• Applicable in steep terrains.
Based on the orchards fertility, the variety and the growth of the tree, the recommended distance between the rows is varying from 1,5 m to 2,2 m, while the within-row spacing should range from 1 m to 1,3 m. The maximum tree height is between 2,2 m and 2,5 m.
The first results in a commercial Evelina® orchard in
the Italian Non Valley were very promising. In 2017
there were planted 2.900 trees with a planting distance
of 2,3m between the rows and 1,5m within the rows.
In the second leaf the harvest reached 30 tons per
hectare with a size of 85+ mm.
Not only an improvement of the already mentioned
quality characteristic, but also a significant reduction in
harvest time, was observable.
Approximately 300 kg per person and hour were
harvested with a simple automatically box transporter.
**Guyot Patent Feno
Feno breeding programme
The Feno breeding programme comprises approx. 1,000 crosses every year.
The breeding aim is clearly defined: The intention is to produce a variety with good suitability for growing, properties which cater for the requirements of consumers and high recognition value. Several breed specimens with impressive properties are already being tested.